Leicester City Council has proposed major changes on a stretch of the busy road along St Margaret's Way and Abbey Lane.
The authority said the scheme would shorten bus journey times and encourage more motorists onto public transport.
Camera enforcement would see £70 fines issued to drivers straying into the new lanes.
The bus lanes would be installed on Sanvey Gate and Wolsey Street, between Byford Road and Beaumont Leys Lane, and between Corporation Road and Thurcaston Road.
Dual carriageway sections of the A6 would be reduced to a single lane for general traffic.
The project includes a red route "No Stopping Order" intended to prevent unauthorised parking, particularly by car transporters near a series of showrooms on Abbey Lane.
The council said these vehicles currently cause significant congestion along the A6.